PART 1PIONEER COOKING RECIPES HOME PAGE
PART 1 BREADMAKING
PART 2 SANDWICHES, COOKIES, FRITTERS, DOUGHNUTS, ETC.
PART 3 CAKE MAKING
PART 4 CAKE RECIPES
PART 5 MEATS, POULTRY, GAME, FISH, OYSTERS & CROQUETTES
PART 6 SOUPS & VEGETABLE DISHES
PART 7 EGGS & OMLETES
PART 8 PICKLING
PART 9 CANNING
PIONEER HOUSEHOLD TIPS 236 TIPS INCLUDING RECIPES OF ALL KINDS RECIPES FOR MAKING BREAD ROLLS AND SUCH
BREAD MAKING: FLOUR \ YEAST \
THE SPONGE \ MIXING AND KNEADING \ BAKING
BREAD RECIPES: Bread \ Whole Wheat Bread \ Entire Wheat Bread \ Salt Rising Bread \ Oatmeal Bread \ Spinsters Bread \ Hotel Berry Brown Bread \ Boston Brown Bread \ Steamed Brown Brea \ Graham Bread \ Raised Graham Bread \ Steamed Graham Bread \ Corn Bread \ Katahdin Corn Bread \ Fried Bread \ Currant Bread \ Cornish Bread \ Gingerbread \ Soft Gingerbread \ Eggless Gingerbread
LIGHT BREADS: ROLLS \ Parker
House Rolls \ Astor House Rolls
BISCUITS: Soda Biscuit \ Breakfast Biscuit \ Southern Beaten Biscuit \ Baking Powder Biscuit
BREAD MAKING FLOUR
There is no accurate rule by which the grade of flour can be determined by examination and it is well to stick by some tried brand which has been used with success. A brand which is liked by one will be a failure in the hands of another. Good flour has a cream-white tint and one should never buy that which has a blue-white tinge. Poor flour often has a dingy appearance as though mixed with ashes, is not adhesive, and may be blown about easily. Good flour will adhere to the hand when pressed and will show the imprint of the lines of the skin. Flour should always be thoroughly sifted. A single speck of mold will often spoil the bread. Flour should be bought in small quantifies, kept dry, cool, and beyond the reach of rats, mice and insects. The small moth does much damage. Remember that all kinds of flour and meal, except buckwheat and graham, need sifting. It is well to have a pail with a tight fitting cover in which to keep flour after sifting until it is needed.YEAST
After flour, the yeast is the most essential element in bread. Most people prefer yeast bread but there are some who prefer "salt-rising" bread. Many of the dry hop yeasts are good if available. Many use bakers yeast and buy just what they need each baking. There are two advantages in using potato yeast---bread made from it will not dry out so quickly and there is not the danger that too much will spoil the flavor of the bread.THE SPONGE
Sponge is made from warm water or milk, yeast, and flour. Some add mashed potatoes. A pint of water or milk should be used for each quart of sifted flour. The milk or water (wetting) should be at blood heat. If milk is used it should be new and first scalded to prevent souring, then cooled to blood heat. The bread will be coarse if the "wetting" is too hot. When water is used, the addition of a tablespoonful of either butter or lard will make the bread more tender. Bread made from water will keep longer and has more of the sweet taste of the wheat than that made from milk but is not so tender and nutritious. When mixed with milk it requires more flour and kneading. In the summer the sponge should not be set before eight or nine oclock in the evening. The sponge may be made with cold water in hot weather. In the winter the batter should be mixed with water or milk at blood heat. Test it with the finger and make it as warm as can be borne ; stir in the flour which will cool it enough for the yeast; cover it closely with several layers of blanket (it is best to have it in a large jar or crock) and place it in a warm and even temperature. For four ordinary sized loaves, three pints of wetting and a teacup of yeast will generally make enough sponge. In making sponge, the yeast should always be added last and the sponge should not be hot enough to scald. The temperature for rising should be eighty or ninety degrees. A more uniform heat can be maintained in a crock or stone jar than in tin, hence sponge should never be set in tin.MIXING AND KNEADING
Early the next morning measure and sift the flour and if the the weather is cold both the flour and sponge should be warmed. A large tin dish pan with a tight fitting cover is excellent for mixing dough. It should be scalded each time it is used. Put the flour into it and for four loaves add two level teaspoonfuls of salt. Mix well but be careful not to get the dough to stiff, then turn out on the bread board ; knead without stopping until the dough sticks to neither the hands nor the board. This will require from forty-five minutes to an hour. All flour to be used should be put in at first molding and it should be kneaded the longest at this time. Use just as little flour as necessary to prevent sticking and remember that any pause in the kneading will injure the bread. There are different ways of kneading and no precise directions can be given. Experience is the best guide. When through with the kneading, form the dough into a large loaf and again place it in the bread pan which has been sprinkled with flour. Either sprinkle the loaf with flour or grease it over with salted butter or lard , cover it closely and set in a warm place for from one to two hours, or until it rises to twice its original size; then knead down in the pan, but bread should be kneaded but little at the second molding. Form into loaves and put each into a well greased baking pan, grease the tops of the loaves with salted butter or lard and set to rise. The loaves should be molded perfectly smooth with no lumps or flour adhering to the sides. The loaves should rise in the pan for from fifteen minutes to an hour, much depending upon the temperature. Before it is entirely through rising or when it has risen enough to seam or crack it should be placed in the oven. Bread should ferment but twice as the third fermentation spoils it. This may be remedied by adding a teaspoonful of soda for each four quarts of flour but the bread will not be so good nor so healthful. Salt should always be added to bread and biscuit but never salt sponge. A small quantity of white sugar improves bread dough , providing the yeast is doubtful. Bread should be mixed as soft as it can be handled but if "new process" flour made from spring wheat is used the dough must be much harder than when winter wheat is used. Try to get the loaves into the pans for the last rising rather soft. Pans with high sides are best for they keep the bread from spreading apart or running over the sides. To have good baking powder biscuit the dough must be kept so soft that you can just get it into the pan. They must be baked quickly in a very hot oven. Never roll the dough thinner than an inch.BAKING
A moderate, uniform heat is very necessary in baking bread. If the heat is too great a hard crust is quickly formed before the bread has expanded sufficiently and it will be heavy. If the bare hand and arm can be held in the oven not longer than enough to count twenty moderately, it is hot enough. Or, it may be tested by placing a small quantity of flour in the center of the oven on an old piece of crockery; if it browns in one minute the heat is right. To tell when the bread is done break the loaves apart and press gently with the finger; if elastic, it is done, but if clammy, it needs to be returned to the oven. Or the loaves may be tested with a broom splint. If nothing adheres when it is withdrawn the bread is done. It generally takes from forty-five minutes to an hour for the baking. As soon as removed from the oven the loaves should be taken from the pans and the entire outside greased with melted butter. They should then be tilted on edge to allow a free circulation of air, though some have success by wrapping the bread with cloth as soon as it is taken from the oven. Do not place warm bread next to wood or it will have a bad taste. Lay a cloth upon the table and put the bread on that. Pans should be greased very lightly for bread. If the bread is baked too hard wrap it in a wet towel and cover with another dry towel. Remember that yeast must never be used if sour; the temperature where the bread is set to rise must not be hot enough to scald ; and the temperature of the oven must be moderate and uniform. Heat the bread knife and you will prevent crumbling in cutting warm bread.RECIPES FOR MAKING YEAST
1.Starter Yeast. In the evening boil enough potatoes to make one pint when mashed very fine. Save potato water and add enough more water to make three pints, then add 1 tablespoonful salt and 1/2 cup sugar and 1 cake compressed yeast, put in the potatoes and stir well, cover and let rise over night. In the morning save 1 pint for the next baking or make fresh each time, as desired; mix stiffer with flour than with other yeast.
2.Potato Yeast. In the morning, boil and mash three potatoes. Add 1/4 cup of sugar and 1/2 cup of flour and 1/2 tablespoonful of salt; stir well together. Pour over this mixture 1/2 pint of boiling water and stir it; then add 1/2 pint of cold water and stir that; then 1/2 cup of yeast and keep it in a warm place. When it is risen well and rounds up to the top of the dish stir it down. Do so several times during the day. Then it may be strained and put into a jar or jug, and kept in a cool place. The bread made with this may be made with milk.
3.Beer Yeast. For 1 Gallon of yeast, take 12 medium-size potatoes, pare and boil them until done. With the water off these, scald 3 heaping tablespoonfuls of flour, 3 tablespoonfuls of sugar, and 3 scant tablespoonfuls of salt. Mix the potatoes, mashed, with this,, then fill gallon with cold water. When cold enough, add 1 cake of magic yeast. Let stand in cool place. Take 1 pint of mixture for 1 loaf of bread.
4.Hop Yeast. Take 1 quart of hops, boiled, and strained, 1 cup of sugar, 1/2 cup of salt, 1/2 cup of lard, 2 large tablespoonfuls of ginger, 4 potatoes boiled and mashed and enough yeast to raise it. Let stand over night, then mix enough flour and corn meal to make crumbly.BAKING POWDERS
1. Baking Powder. Four ounces tartaric acid, 5 ounces bulk soda, 1 pint flour; sift all together four times.
2. Baking Powder. A scant pint of flour, 1/2 pound of soda and 1 pound of best cream of tartar. Sift together eight times through a flour sieve. Fill tin boxes and cover tightly. The lady sending this recipe says she has used it for years and that it never fails. It is pure and the money you save will be a surprise to you.
3. Baking Powder. Six ounces cream of tartar, 2 2/3 ounce bicarbonate of soda, 4 1/2 ounces of flour. It is claimed this is the recipe from which is made one of the most popular brands of baking powder on the market.BREAD RECIPES 1.Bread. Cook potatoes enough to make one cup when mashed; use the water the potatoes were boiled in and add enough lukewarm water to make three pints; add one tablespoonful of salt and one tablespoonful of sugar, one-half cup of liquid yeast and thicken quite stiff with flour. Let sponge rise all night in a warm place until light. Knead into loaves, using some lard on the molding board but no flour. Let rise and bake.
2.Whole Wheat Bread. In the evening boil enough potatoes to make one pin when fine mashed. Save three pints potato water and add to it the potatoes, one-half cup sugar and one tablespoonful of salt ; add one cake compressed yeast, stir well and let rise over night. In the morning add enough warm water to make required number of loaves; add a little more salt and a little lard. Stiffen with whole wheat flour and add about two quarts white flour, work down twice, then mold into loaves, let rise and bake one hour.
3.Entire Wheat Bread. Sift some salt and three tablespoonfuls baking powder with three cups entire wheat flour, then add two cups milk and a scant one-quarter cup of molasses.
4. Salt Rising Bread. In the evening take three tablespoonfuls of cornmeal, one-half spoonful of salt, one-half of a raw potato, scraped fine, and scald with enough water to make a thick batter ; then add the mush made the night before, and stir briskly for a minute or two. Set in a warm place ; when light, stir down and let it rise a second time. When risen, put four or five quarts of flour in a bread bowl, make a hole in the center, and pour in three pints of warm water. Then add your rising ; knead, and when light mix in loaves. When risen to top of pan, bake. This will make three loaves.
5.Oatmeal Bread. Scald one cup of rolled oats with one pint of water and let stand until lukewarm; add to this a little salt, one-half cup of Orleans molasses and one-half cake of compressed yeast, which has been previously dissolved in one teacup of lukewarm water. Add enough white flour to make a stiff dough and knead thoroughly. Let stand over night and the first thing in the morning cut and slash with a knife until the dough is freed from air; when risen again, form into loaves, place in baking pan and let rise until the size is about double, and then bake.
6. Spinsters Bread. Two eggs, one quart of flour, two tablespoonfuls of shortening, one tablespoonful of salt, one teacupful of yeast sponge, one cup of sweet milk. Mix into a soft dough, let rise; mold into loaves, let rise until light then bake.
7.Hotel Berry Brown Bread. Use one and one-half pints of buttermilk, one-half pint of molasses, two teaspoonfuls of soda, one tablespoonful of lard and enough Graham flour to make a batter that will just drop from a spoon. Put in a very hot pan and bake in a hot oven
8. Boston Brown Bread. Two cups of Graham flour, 2 cups of white flour, 1 cup of corn meal, 1 tablespoonful of butter, 2 eggs, 1 cup of molasses, 1 box of raisins, 1 large spoonful of sugar, 2 1/4 cups of buttermilk, 2 teaspoonfuls of soda.
9.Old Fashioned Brown Bread. Put 1 pint of yellow corn meal in a mixing bowl and scald it with just enough boiling water to moisten it. Let this stand about 10 minutes, then add enough cold water to make a soft batter. When lukewarm add 1/2 cup liquid yeast, 1 teaspoonful soda, 1/2 teaspoonful salt, and 1 pint warm flour. Stir well and let rise over night. Next morningstir it down again and put into well greased tins to rise. Bake in a moderate oven 2 hours.
10.Steamed Brown Bread. One cup of corn meal, 1 cup of flour, 2 cups of graham flour, 2 eggs, 1 cup of molasses, 1 teaspoonful of soda. Wet this mixture with sweet milk to make a thin batter, steam three hours.
11. Graham Bread. One cup of potato yeast sponge, 3 (iron) tablespoonfuls of molasses, 1 tablespoonful of butter, 1 teaspoonful of salt, 1 1/2 cups of graham flour, 1 1/2 cups of white flour. Stir well together at night; let stand until morning, or until light and then put in a pan and let rise again; then bake 45 minutes.
12. Raised Graham Bread. To 3 pints of light bread sponge add 1/2 cup flour melted butter or lard, 2 tablespoonfuls sugar and enough graham flour to make a thick batter. Put into a small greased tins, let rise and bake slowly. This is enough for three loaves.
13.Steamed Graham Bread To 2 cups of buttermilk add 2 large tablespoonfuls sugar, 1 teaspoonful soda, 3 cups flour and a pinch of salt; steam 1 1/2 hours and bake until light brown. If wished, a little less graham flour may be used and a little white flour added.
14.Corn Bread. One tablespoonful of sugar, 1 egg, 1 teaspoonful of salt, 1 tablespoonful of melted butter or lard, 2 cups of buttermilk, 1 level teaspoonful of soda dissolved in a little of the milk; 1/2 cup flour. Thicken with meal and bake in a greased pan.
15.Katahdin Corn Bread. One and one-half cups of sweet milk, 1 or 2 eggs, 3 scant cups of flour, 1 1/4 cups of cornmeal (granulated); 1 large spoonful of granulated sugar, 3 heaping teaspoonfuls of baking powder, 1 1/2 teaspoonfuls of salt, 4 tablespoonfuls of melted butter. Beat egg well, stir in the milk; sift flour, baking powder, meal, salt and sugar together, and stir slowly in egg and milk; add melted butter and beat well. Bake 1/2 hour in hot oven.
16.Fried Bread. Cut dry bread into small pieces and moisten with a little hot water. Take 4 eggs for about 3 pints of bread. Beat eggs and stir in bread. Fry in butter or lard. Very nice when eaten with syrup.
17.Currant Bread. Take bread dough when ready for pans. For each loaf wanted take 1/2 box of currants, 1 cup of sugar and lard the size of an egg. Use more flour if needed to make stiff. Mix into loaves and let rise until light. Bake in a slow oven from 1 to 1 1/4 hours.
18. Cornish Bread. One cup of sugar and 1 tablespoonful of lard ; pour a cup of boiling water over a pinch of saffron and when a little cool strain and pour into the bread sponge; wash 2/3 cup of currants and add to the mixture; make as other bread. This is for four loaves.
19. Gingerbread. One cup of molasses, 1 cup butter or 1/2 cup each of butter and lard, 1 cup of sour milk, 1 good teaspoonful of soda or a little more, 1 teaspoonful of ginger, 1 egg, flour enough to make a nice batter; bake in a quick oven.
20. Soft Gingerbread. One cup of sour milk, to 3 cups of sugar, 1 cup molasses, 2 teaspoonfuls of cinnamon, 1 teaspoonful of ginger, 1 tablespoonful; of baking soda, 1 tablespoonful of vinegar, 2 tablespoonfuls of lard, pinch of salt, 2 cups of flour; mix molasses, sugar, and milk; sift flour and spices together; dissolve soda in vinegar; stir the lard in boiling hot at the last.
21. Eggless Gingerbread. One-half cup of brown sugar, 1 1/2 cups of molasses, 1/2 cup sweet milk, 1/2 cup butter, one teaspoonful soda, 1 teaspoonful allspice, 1/2 teaspoonful of ginger, 3 cups of flour.LIGHT BREADS
Including Rolls, Biscuits, Sandwiches, Cookies, Fritters, Doughnuts, Gems Muffins,Waffles, Corn Cake, Buns, Dumplings, Crullers, Jumbles, Toast,Crackers, Rusks, Scotch Scones, Griddle Cakes, Etc.ROLLS
1.Rolls. Scald 1 pint of sweet milk and stir into it a lump of butter the size of an egg, and 1/2 cup of sugar; when cool stir into this 2 quarts of flour, a small cup of good yeast and 1 teaspoon of salt, and set to rise over night or until it is very light; then knead and let rise again; cut the rolls 1/2 inch thick; shape round; spread over each a little melted butter and double over so the roll is a half circle. Place close in a pan; let rise again very light and bake.
2. Parker House Rolls. Scald 1 pint of milk and when lukewarm put in 1/2 cup of butter or lard, 1/2 cup of sugar , and 1 1/2 teaspoonfuls of salt. When cool, thicken as bread sponge and put in 3/4 of a cake of yeast. Let rise over night; then mix but do not make it as thick as bread dough; let rise again; then knead and roll in sheets; cut with biscuit cutter; butter the surface and fold; let rise and bake.
3. Astor House Rolls. One pint of sweet milk boiled, and while still warm put in a lump of butter the size of an egg, a little salt, two tablespoonfuls of sugar and 1/2 cake of compressed yeast; when light mold 15 minutes, let rise again, roll out and cut in round cakes; spread each half with butter and fold over on the other half; put into pans and when light bake in a quick oven.
4. Cinnamon Roll. Take a small loaf of light bread dough, 1 tablespoonful of lard, sweeten, roll thin, spread with butter, sprinkle with sugar and cinnamon, and roll up in loaf; when light glaze with beaten egg. Bake in a moderate oven.
5. French Rolls. Rub 2 ounces of butter and the well-beaten whites of three eggs into one pound of flour; add a tablespoonful of good yeast, a little salt and enough milk to make a stiff dough; cover and set in a warm place till light; cut into rolls and dip the edges into melted butter to keep them from sticking. Bake in a quick oven.
1. Soda Biscuit. Sift a level teaspoonful of salt with 1 quart of flour and rub into it a piece of lard about the size of a small egg and then add a pint of sour milk. Bake in a quick oven.
2. Breakfast Biscuit. Take 1 pint of sweet milk, 1/4 cup melted lard or butter, a little salt, 1 tablespoonful baking powder and flour enough for a stiff batter. Drop from the spoon into the greased tin and bake in a hot oven.
3. Southern Beaten Biscuit. One quart of flour, a pinch of soda the size of a pea, 1/2 cup of sweet milk, 1/2 cup of sweet milk, 1/2 cup of ice water, 1 teaspoonful of salt, 2 heaping tablespoonfuls of lard; mix to a stiff dough and beat until it blisters and pops. The success depends upon the length of time it is beaten.
4. Baking Powder Biscuit. One quart of flour, 1 teaspoonful of salt and two teaspoonfuls of baking powder sifted together, 1 tablespoonful of lard, thoroughly rubbed into the flour. Mix as soft as can be handled, with sweet milk. Roll into sheets 3/4 of an inch thick; cut with small biscuit cutter and bake in a hot oven about 15 minutes.